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Published On: Tue, Feb 4th, 2014

New strain of Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea virus found in US, virus spreads to second Canadian farm

The Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea virus (PEDv), which was introduced in the United States in April 2013, has been seen in at least 23 states and areas of Canada, affected over 2,400 farms.

Now a second strain of the pig virus has been detected, according to the Iowa State University Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory recently.

 

Image/Scott Bauer, U.S. Department of Agriculture

Image/Scott Bauer, U.S. Department of Agriculture

According to a release,  Iowa State University Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory (ISU VDL) is offering PEDV S1 (first 2.2 kb portion of the spike gene) sequencing to the clientele to help determine the genetic relatedness and molecular epidemiology of PEDV in US swine. During the time periods of January 24 – January 29, 2014, PEDV S1 sequencing was performed on 15 PEDV cases at ISU VDL. Among them, PEDV S1 sequences from 10 cases (ISU cases 6-15) are similar to each other and to the PEDV strains identified in US swine since April 2013 (99.1-100% nucleotide identities).

In distinct contrast, the PEDV S1 sequences from the other 5 cases (ISU cases 1-5) only have 93.9-94.6% nucleotide identities to the PEDV strains previously identified in US swine. However, these 5 PEDV cases shared 99.6-100% nucleotide identities to each other based on the S1 sequences.

Phylogenetic analysis based on the S1 sequences demonstrated that aforementioned 10 PEDV cases clustered together with PEDV strains identified in US since April 2013. However, the aforementioned 5 PEDV cases clustered very differently from the PEDV strains previously identified in US swine. Sequence alignment showed that the S1 sequences of these 5 PEDV cases had some deletions and insertions compared to PEDV viruses previously identified in US.

Based on the data currently available, it appears unlikely that this strain is a mutant evolved from PEDV previously identified in US swine. Determination of the entire genome sequences of these new PEDVs are in progress and will help determine the origin of the viruses.

The PEDV real-time RT-PCR offered at ISU VDL is targeting the nucleocapsid (N) gene. The N-gene is known to be a conserved portion of the PEDV genome. Thus far, the PEDV N-gene real-time RT-PCR being conducted at the ISU VDL seems to be readily detecting these new PEDVs. The full-length N gene sequences of the new PEDVs have been determined and were similar to the PEDVs previously identified in the US.

The University of Minnesota  College of Veterinary Medicine announced the development of a second porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) diagnostic test last week. The test is the first announced United States PEDV swine herd surveillance test and brings PEDV diagnostic testing up to swine industry disease monitoring standards.

The new test not only detects evidence of the virus, it is also very precise tool to detect a history of exposure to the virus.

In PEDv news from Canada, on January 28th, Ontario confirmed a second case of PEDv with a third case currently under investigation. Unfortunately, the initial efforts to “stamp out” PED in the first infected Canadian herd have not prevented this incidence.

For more infectious disease news and information, visit and “like” the Infectious Disease News Facebook page and the Outbreak News This Week Radio Show page.

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About the Author

- Writer, Co-Founder and Executive Editor of The Global Dispatch. Robert has been covering news in the areas of health, world news and politics for a variety of online news sources. He is also the Editor-in-Chief of the website, Outbreak News Today and hosts the podcast, Outbreak News Interviews on iTunes, Stitcher and Spotify Robert is politically Independent and a born again Christian Follow @bactiman63

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