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Published On: Tue, Apr 16th, 2013

New Mexico reports the most syphilis cases in 25 years

New Mexico health authorities have reported a spike in syphilis cases in 2012, in fact they say the 101 cases of primary and secondary syphilis reported last year is the most seen since 1988, according to a New Mexico Department of Health press release April 16.

McKinley, Cibola, San Juan and Bernalillo counties experienced the highest case rates.

Darkfield microscopy of Treponema pallidum Credits:   CDC

Darkfield microscopy of Treponema pallidum
Credits: CDC

“Syphilis is only infectious in its early stages, so primary and secondary cases are especially significant because that is when it’s easily spread,” said Department of Health Secretary Retta Ward, MPH. “When diagnosed early, syphilis is easily treated, most effectively with shots of penicillin.”

Syphilis, or “The Great Imitator”, reached its lowest level in the United States in decades just 13 years ago; however, a resurgence of the sexually transmitted infection (STI) has been observed in recent years.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) report that approximately 55,400 people in the United States get new syphilis infections annually.

Much of its resurgence has been among men who have sex with men.

According to health department data, last year, males accounted for 91 percent of the 101 primary and secondary infections. There is also disparity by race and ethnicity: while almost half of the early syphilis cases in 2012 were among Hispanics, Native Americans had a rate that was 2.6 times higher than state rate for all races, while the rate for Blacks was 1.9 times higher.

Syphilis is a sexually transmitted infection (STI) caused by the bacterium, Treponema pallidum. The most common way to get syphilis is by having sexual contact (oral, genital or anal) with an infected person. The secondary lesions are also infective and contact with them could transmit the bacteria. It can also be transmitted from an infected mother to her baby (congenital transmission). It can also be transmitted through blood transfusion, though extremely rare because of testing of donors.

Because of the fragility of the organism, you cannot get syphilis from eating utensils, pools or toilets.

Syphilis goes through four stages that can overlap:

Primary Syphilis

The first symptom of primary syphilis is frequently a small, round, firm ulcer called a chancre (pronounced “shanker”) at the place the bacteria enters the body (usually the penis, vulva or vagina, but it may appear on the cervix, tongue or lips). There is usually just one chancre, however there can be many. Swollen lymph nodes in these areas are common.

The chancre usually appears in about 3 weeks after infection, but can occur anytime from 9-90 days after infection.

Because chancres are painless and can occur inside the body, you may not notice it. It disappears after 3-6 weeks whether you are treated or not. If primary syphilis goes untreated, it then moves into the secondary stage.

Secondary Syphilis

The most common symptom of this stage is a non-itchy rash. The rash is usually on the palms of the hands (see below) and soles of the feet, it can cover the whole body or only a select few areas. This occurs 2-10 weeks after the chancre heals. Other common symptoms are sore throat, fatigue, headache, swollen glands and less frequently hair loss and lesions in the mouth.

Much like primary syphilis, secondary syphilis will disappear even without treatment. If untreated it goes into the latent and tertiary stages.

Latent Syphilis

This is the hidden stage of syphilis. At this stage there are no symptoms. This stage can last for weeks or decades.

Early latent syphilis is still an infectious stage and you can transmit the disease to your partner. In late latent syphilis, the risk of infecting a partner is low or absent.

Signs and symptoms may never return or if untreated it goes into the most serious stage, tertiary syphilis.

Tertiary Syphilis

Even without treatment only a minority of infected people develop these horrible complications. In this stage, the bacteria will damage the heart, eyes, brain, bones, joints and central nervous system. This can happen decades after the initial infection. This can result in blindness, deafness, memory loss, heart disease and death. Neurosyphilis is one of the most severe signs of this stage.

Congenital syphilis can results in miscarriages, premature births and stillbirths. Some infants with congenital syphilis have symptoms at birth, but most develop symptoms later. Sore on infected babies are infectious so holding and kissing infected babies could transmit the disease.

It is very easy to detect early stages of syphilis through blood tests that detect antibodies. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force and other major medical organizations recommend that all pregnant women be screened for syphilis. The bacteria can be visualized through special microscopic techniques from the primary chancre or other sores.

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If it is suspected to be neurosyphilis, testing can be done on spinal fluid.

It is easy to treat syphilis in the early stages with one injection of Penicillin. Later stages or neurosyphilis may take daily doses given by IV in a hospital. It is important to note in late syphilis, any damage done to organs cannot be reversed.

Having a syphilis chancre can increase the transmission of HIV up to 5-fold.

To reduce your risk of syphilis and other sexually transmitted diseases, practice safe sex:

• Avoid sex, or have mutually monogamous sex with one partner who is uninfected.
• Talk with your sex partners about your HIV status and history of other sexually transmitted infections.
• If you don’t know the STI status of your partner, use a latex condom with each sexual contact.
• Avoid excessive use of alcohol or other drugs, which can cloud your judgment and lead to unsafe sexual practices.

For more infectious disease news and information, visit and “like” the Infectious Disease News Facebook page

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About the Author

- Writer, Co-Founder and Executive Editor of The Global Dispatch. Robert has been covering news in the areas of health, world news and politics for a variety of online news sources. He is also the Editor-in-Chief of the website, Outbreak News Today and hosts the podcast, Outbreak News Interviews on iTunes, Stitcher and Spotify Robert is politically Independent and a born again Christian Follow @bactiman63

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